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Sankardev Essays

Srimanta Sankardeva
শ্ৰীমন্ত শঙ্কৰদেৱ

Imaginary portrait of Srimanta Sankardev by Bishnu Prasad Rabha[1]

ReligionHinduism
Founder ofEkasarana Dharma
PhilosophyEkasarana
Personal
Born26 September 1448,
Bordowa/Batadrowa, Nagaon District of Assam, India
Died23 August 1568, Tuesday
Bheladonga, Cooch Behar, West Bengal, India
Religious career
SuccessorMadhavdev
HonorsVenerated as Mahapurusha

Quotation

Do, therefore, regard all and everything as though they were God Himself!? Seek not to know the caste of a Brahmana nor of a Chandala.[2]

Srimanta Sankardev[3] ([ˈʃrɪˌmʌntə ˈʃænkə(r)ˌdeɪv]; 1449–1568) (Assamese: মহাপুৰুষ শ্ৰীমন্ত শঙ্কৰদেৱ, translit. Môhapurux Srimôntô Xôngkôrdew) was a 15th–16th century Assamesepolymath: a saint-scholar, poet, playwright, social-religious reformer and a figure of importance in the cultural and religious history of Assam, India. He is widely credited with building on past cultural relics and devising new forms of music (Borgeet), theatrical performance (Ankia Naat, Bhaona), dance (Sattriya), literary language (Brajavali). Besides, he has left an extensive literary oeuvre of trans-created scriptures (Bhagavat of Sankardev), poetry and theological works written in Sanskrit, Assamese and Brajavali. The Bhagavatic religious movement he started, Ekasarana Dharma and also called Neo-Vaishnavite movement,[4] influenced two medieval kingdoms---Koch and the Ahom kingdoms—and the assembly of devotees he initiated evolved into Sattras over time, which continue to be important socio-religious institutions in Assam and to a lesser extend in North Bengal. Sankardev inspired the Bhakti movement in Assam just as Guru Nanak, Ramananda, Kabir, Basava and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu inspired it elsewhere in the Indian subcontinent. His influence spread even to some kingdoms as the Matak Kingdom founded by Bharat Singha, and consolidated by Sarbanda Singha in the latter 18th century endorsed his teachings.[5]

His literary and artistic contributions are living traditions in Assam today. The religion he preached is practised by a large population, and Sattras (monasteries) that he and his followers established continue to flourish and sustain his legacy.

Biography[edit]

After the death of Sankardev, Madhavdev incorporated narrations of his life in prayer services, a practice that was followed by his apostles, and in due course of time a large body of biographical literature arose.[6] These are generally classed in two groups: early (those by Daityari Thakur, Bhusan Dwija, Ramananda Dwija and Vaikuntha Dwija) and late (Guruvarnana by Aniruddha Das, the more than one anonymous Katha-guru-carits, Bardowa-carit, Sankardev caritra from Barpeta, the Saru-svarga-khanda and Bar-svarga-khanda by Sarvabhauma).[7] The authorship of the biography credited to Ramcaran Thakur, Daityari Thakur's father, is doubted and it is generally dated to the 17th-century and classed with the late biographies.[8]

In general, all biographies consider Sankardev as an incarnation of Vishnu, including that by Daityari Thakur, the earliest. The late biographies differ from the early group on the count that they ascribe supernatural feats to Sankardev, and describe miraculous events; and there is a tendency to read some events of the Bhagavata into his life.[9] The biographies are full of contradictions; even though the earlier ones are considered more accurate, not all they claim are true—Daityari Thakur's biography, the earliest one, claims Sankardev met with Chaitanya, which is now not accepted to be true.[10]

Early life:Bordowa/Batadrowa[edit]

Sankardev's Family Tree
ChandivaraSandhya
RajadharaDevahuti
KhersutiSuryavaraJayantaHalayudhaMadhava
SatyasandhaKusumvaraAnudhritiSatananda
SuryavatiSankardevKalindiHaladharaRamaraya
HariManuRamanandaKamalocanaHaricaranaKamalapriyaChilarai
PurushottamChaturbhuj

Sankardev, then named Sankaravara,[11] was born into the Shiromani (chief) Baro-Bhuyans family at Bordowa in present-day Nagaon district in c1449.[12] Though some authors have expressed doubt that Sankardev could have lived that long, considering that he was of robust health 1449 is generally accepted.[13] The Baro-Bhuyans were independent landlords in Assam, and Sankardev belonged to the Kayastha Hindu caste. His family-members, including parents Kusumvar Bhuyan and Satyasandhya Devi, were Saktas. Sankardev lost his father to smallpox when he was about 7 years old,[14] and his mother died either soon after his birth, or soon after his father's death;[15] and he was raised by his grandmother Khersuti.

He began attending Mahendra Kandali's tol or chatrasaal (school) at the age of 12 and soon wrote his first verses karatala-kamala. The complete poem was written before he was taught the vowels except, of course, the first one, and is often cited as an example of the early flowering of his poetic genius. He stayed at the tol during his teens, and studied grammar and Indian scriptures.[16] He practised yoga (which is gave up later) and was physically very able,[17] and according to legend, he could swim across the Brahmaputra while it was in spate. It is generally believed that he wrote his first work, Harishchandra upakhyan, while at the tol.[16] Mahendra Kandali changed his name to 'Sankdardev' while he was at school.[16]

Bhuyan shiromaniship[edit]

Sankardev soon mastered the major scriptures of Sanatana Dharma and thereafter left the tol in his late teens (c1465) to attend to his responsibilities as the Shiromani Bhuyan.[18] He came to be known as the Dekagiri among his subjects and admirers. He married his first wife Suryavati when he was in his early 20s and a daughter, Manu, was born in about three years, but his wife died about nine months later.[19]

First pilgrimage[edit]

It is possible that the death of his wife increased his already existing spiritual inclination and he left for a twelve-year-long pilgrimage, sometime after his daughter was married to Hari, a Bhuyan scion. He handed over the maintenance of his household to his son-in-law Hari; the Bhuyan Shiromaniship to his grand uncles Jayanta and Madhav; and began his journey in 1481. He was accompanied by seventeen others including his friend and associate Ramaram and his teacher Mahendra Kandali.[20] At this point of time, he was 32. The pilgrimage took him to Puri, Mathura, Dwaraka, Vrindavan, Gaya, Rameswaram, Ayodhya, Sitakunda and almost all the other major seats of the Vaishnavite religion in India. He seem to have spent many years at Jagannath-kshetra at Puri, where he read and explained the Brahma Purana to the priests and lay people.[21] At Badrikashram in 1488, he composed his first borgeetmana meri ram charanahi lagu—in Brajavali.[22] According to Katha Gurucharit, the first Borgeet was "Rama meri hridaya pankaje baise" and he composed it in 1481 at the very outset of the pilgrimage at a place called Rowmari.[23] He returned home to Alipukhuri after 12 years (his family had moved back from Bordowa in his absence). During his pilgrimage, he became the part of a pan-Indian Bhakti movement and helped it blossom.

Shiromaniship refusal[edit]

On his return from his pilgrimage (c1493), Sankardev refused to take back the Shiromaniship, though on the insistence of his elders, he took responsibility of a hundred families (gomastha) but he soon handed over the responsibility to his son-in-law Hari. On his grandmother's insistence, he married Kalindi at the age of 54. Finally, he moved back to Bordowa and constructed a temple (devagriha) in c1498,[24] possibly a thatched house, built on the original site of his father's house where he could meet with people, discuss religious matters and hold prayers, and preach. He wrote Bhakti pradipa and Rukmini harana. Soon after, he received a copy of the Bhagavata Purana from Jagadisa Mishra of Mithila, with Sridhara Swami's monistic commentary "Bhavartha-dipika". Mishra recited and explained the entire Bhagavata in the presence of Sankardev and this event is considered momentous in the development of Ekasarana.[25] Datyari, an early biographer of Sankardev writes: Sankardev listened with rapt attention to the exposition by Jagadish Mishra and realised that the Bhagavata was a scripture without parallel, a scripture that determined Krishna as the only God, naam as the real dharma, and aikantika-sarana and sat-sanga as the indispensable elements of the faith." [26] He also began composing the Kirtana ghosha.

Cihna-yatra[edit]

After his exposure to the detailed Bhagavata Purana and Sridhara Swami's commentary Bhavartha-dipika, Sankardev produced a dance-drama called Cihna yatra, for which he painted the Sapta vaikuntha (seven heavens), guided the making of musical instruments and played the instruments himself.[27][28] According to other biographers, Sankardev produced Maha-nata in the presence of Jagdish Mishra in the temple he had constructed at Bordowa.[29]

According to Neog, this was the point when Sankardev decided to preach a new religion. Some of the first to be initiated into this religion was the wife of Jayanta-dalai, a leper named Hariram (later Tulasiram), Ramaram his associate and Mahendra Kandali, his tol teacher.[30] The 13 years at Alipukhuri was the period during which he reflected deeply on Vaishnavism and on the form that would best suit the spiritual and ethical needs of the people. Ananta Kandali, a profound scholar of Sanskrit, became his disciple during this time; he translated the later part of Canto X of the Bhagavata Purana after consulting Sankardev.

Some authors claim that this than had all the major features of a sattra (central kirtanghar, cari-hati etc.),[31] whereas many others assert that these features did not exist during Sankardev's time.[32][33] This than was abandoned and more than a hundred years later in the middle of the 17th-century, Sankardev's granddaughter-in-law, Kanaklata, established it again.[34]

Srimanta Shankardev has written in the "BHAGAWAT" and Uttara Kanda Ramayana, loudation of Bordowa/Batardawa (Nagoan district) about his native village which is 100% and absolutely true information of his birth place ie. Bordowa/Batardowa. However, some people claim that the birth place of Shankardev is Patekibori Alipukhuri (Morigaon District) which is not true and misleading. (Ref: "Sri Srimanta Shankardev Porama Gurujonar Janmasthanr Binoni" a collection of true history of the birth place of Sri Srimanta Shankardev...written by Sri Dipak Saikia.

Literary works in the Baro-Bhuyan territories[edit]

  1. Non-Bhagavata group
    • Harishcandra-Upakhyana
    • Bhakti-pradip
    • Kirtan-ghosa (Uresa-varnana)
  2. Non-Bhagavata mixed with Bhagavata elements, not influenced by Sridhara Swami
  3. Lyrics
  4. Bhagavata tales, not from Book X
    • Ajamilopakhyan (Book VI)
    • Amrta-manthan (Book VIII)
    • Kirtan-ghosa (Ajamilopakhyan, Prahlada-caritra, Harmohana,
    • Sections ii–vi[35][36]

Ahom kingdom[edit]

Gangmau[edit]

Viswa Singha, began his activities to remove the Bhuyans from power in the western part of the Brahmaputra valley in 1509. Furthermore, the Bhuyans in the Bordowa area picked up a quarrel with their Kachari neighbours, and when attacked Sankardev advised the Bhuyans to move, which brought to an end the independence of this group of Bhuyans.[37] Sankardev and his associates first crossed the Brahmaputra river in 1516–17 and settled first at Singari and finally at Routa; and when Viswa Singha advanced towards Routa, Sankardev moved to Gangmau in the Ahom kingdom.[37] At Gangmau they stayed for five years where Sankardev's eldest son Ramananda was born. At Gangmau, he wrote the drama Patniprasad. In fact he lived alone at a place named Gajalasuti out of dissatisfaction with some relative. He penned the play there.

Dhuwahat[edit]

While at Gangmau, the Koch king Viswa Singha attacked the Ahoms. The Bhuyans fought for the Ahoms and the Koch king was defeated. Due to the unsettled situation at Gangmau Sankardev next moved to Dhuwahat, near Ahatguri in present-day Majuli, washed away by the Brahmaputra in 1913. The Bhuyans were settled here by the Ahoms with land and estate,[38] Hari, Sankardev's son-in-law became a Saikia, and his cousin Jagatananda, grandson of Jayanta received a title 'Ramarai'.[39] At Dhuwahat, he met his spiritual successor Madhavdev. Madhavdev, a sakta, got into a religious altercation with his brother-in-law Ramadas who had recently converted to Vaishnavism. Ramadas took him to Sankardev, who, after a long debate, convinced him of the power and the efficacy of Ekasarana. The acquisition of Madhavdev, with his talent in poetry, singing and dedication to his new-found religion and guru, was a significant event in the Ekasarana history. At Dhuwahat he managed to attract a wider attention and popularity and he initiated many others into his religion.

The popularity of Ekasarana and the conversion of people alarmed the priestly Brahmins,[40] who reacted with anger and hostility. Sankardev tried to diffuse their hostility—by meeting with them at the house of his relative Budha-Khan[41] and asking his Brahmin antagonists to install a wooden idol of Jagannath, called Madan-Mohan, at his religious seat. (Sankardev left this idol hanging on a tree when he took flight from Dhuwahat, and it was rescued years later by Vamshigopaldev and installed at Deberapar-sattra).[42][43] The Brahmins finally complained to the Ahom king, Suhungmung (1497–1539), who summoned Sankardev to his court for a debate with them. Sankardev was able to convince the king that he was not a religious rebel and a threat to the social order, and the charges against him were dropped.[41] The hostility, nevertheless, continued.[44]

Flight from Dhuwahat[edit]

Though the positions of the Bhuyans in the Ahom kingdom began comfortably—with Sankardev's son-in-law, Hari, becoming a Paik officer and Ramrai, his cousin, becoming a royal official—the relationship gradually deteriorated. After the death of Viswasingha, who was inimical to the Bhuyans, and the rise of Naranarayan (1540), the Koch-Bhuyan relationship improved somewhat.[45] Sometime in the 1540s during the reign of Suklenmung (1539–1552) a royal officer visited the region for an elephant capturing expedition. Hari did not make himself available and furthermore, an elephant escaped through a barrier managed by the Bhuyans. The officer took grave offence in this dereliction of duty and arrested Hari as well as Madhavdev. At Garhgaon, Hari was executed and Madhavdev interned for about a year.[46] According to Daityari, taking advantage of the Koch advance against the Ahoms (1546–1547), Sankardev and his followers escaped from the Ahom kingdom as they fell behind the vanguard of the Koch army setting up their garrison in Narayanpur further to the east.[47]

Literary works in the Ahom kingdom[edit]

  1. Arguments against those antagonistic to bhakti
    • Kirtan-ghosa (Pasanda-mardana, Namaparadha)
    • (Vipra)-patni-prasad (Ankia Naat)
  2. Tales from Krishna's early life
    • Kirtan-ghosa (sisu-lila, rasa-krida, kamsavadha, gopi-uddhava-samvada, kujir vancha-purana, akrurar vancha-purana)
  3. Borgeets

Koch kingdom[edit]

Sunpora[edit]

Sankardev and his followers reached Kapalabari in the Koch kingdom in the later part of 1540 where Madhavdev's mother Manorama and some others died; and the group soon moved to Sunpora in 1541.[48] At Sunpora Sankardev initiated Bhavananda and Narayana Das (later Thakur Ata).

Patbausi[edit]

After a great deal of moving, Sankardev settled at Patbausi near Barpeta in the Koch Kingdom and constructed a Kirtanghar (house of prayer). Some of the people he initiated here are Chakrapani Dwija and Sarvabhaum Bhattacharya, Brahmins; Govinda, a Garo; Jayaram, a Bhutia; Madhai, a Jaintia; Jatiram, an ascetic; and Murari, a Koch. Damodardev, a Brahmin, was initiated by Sankardev. Damodardev was entrusted by Sankardev to initiate Brahmin disciples. A Sattra was also constructed for him at Patbausi itself. Later Damodardev became the founder of the Brahma Sanghati sect of Sankardev's religion.

Among Sankardev's literary works, he completed his rendering of the Bhagavata Purana and wrote other independent works. He continued composing the Kirtan Ghosha, further translated the first canto of the Ramayana (Adi Kanda) and instructed Madhavdev to translate the last canto (Uttara Kanda), portions that were left undone by the 14th century poet Madhav Kandali. He wrote four plays: Rukmini harana, Parijata harana, Keligopala and Kalidamana. Another play written at Patbausi, Kansa Vadha, is lost. At Patbausi, he had lent his Bargeets numbering around 240 to Kamala Gayan. But unfortunately, Gayan's house was gutted and most of the borgeets were lost. Since that incident Sankardev stopped composing Bargeets. Of the 240, 34 remain today.

Second Pilgrimage[edit]

Sankardev once again left for a pilgrimage in 1550 with a large party of 117 disciples that included Madhavdev, Ramrai, Ramaram, Thakur Ata and others. Thakur Ata had to return after just one day's journey. Madhavdev had to take entire responsibility of logistics. He on the request of Sankardev's wife Kalindi urged him to return from Puri and not proceed to Vrindavana. Sankardev and the group returned to Patbausi within six months in 1551.

Koch capital and Bheladanga[edit]

On receiving repeated complaints that Sankardev was corrupting the minds of the people by spreading a new religion Nara Narayan, the Koch king, ordered Sankardev's arrest, and Sankardev went into hiding.[49]Chilarai—the general of the Koch army, half-brother of the king and married to Kamalapriya the daughter of Sankardev's cousin Ramarai—then convinced the king to give Sankardev a hearing instead.[50]

For the audience with Nara Narayan, as he moved up the steps to the court, Sankardev sang his Sanskrit totaka hymn, composed extempore, to Lord Krishna madhu daanava daarana deva varam and as he sat down, he sang a borgeet, narayana kahe bhakati karu tera, playing on the name of the king. At the debate with the court pundits that followed, Sankardev was able to refute all allegations against him. The king declared him free and furthermore honored him with a seat close to the throne. Sankardev began to attend Naranarayana's court regularly, and received the freedom to propagate his teachings.

Chilarai was instrumental in keeping Sankardev safe and supporting his work. Many of Sankardev's literary and dramatic works were completed in his domain with his patronage and protection. Sankardev acknowledged his appreciation in his play 'Ram Vijaya'.

Sankardev shuttled between Kochbehar the capital and Patbausi his seat. He was often hosted by Chilarai, and on his request agreed to have the images of the childhood days of krishna at Vrindavan woven on cloth. He engaged the weavers of Tantikuchi, near Barpeta, to weave a forty-yard long tapestry panel. Sankaradeva provided the designs to be woven, chose the various colours of thread to be used, and supervised the weaving. It took about a year to complete and, deriving its name from its theme, came to be known as the Vrindavani Vastra . It was presented to Chilarai and Naranarayan. A section of this cloth is preserved now in the Victoria and Albert museum in London.

Chandsai, a Muslim tailor serving the Koch king became a disciple of Sankardev at Kochbehar. When Sankardev returned to Patbausi some time later, Chandsai too came with the saint. Sankardev frequented the capital for more than 20 years and enjoyed unstinted royal patronage for the first time.

End[edit]

He made arrangements with Madhavdev and Thakur Ata and gave them various instructions at Patbausi and left the place for the last time. He set up his home at Bheladonga in Kochbehar. During his stay at Kochbehar, Maharaja Naranarayana expressed his wish to be initiated. Sankardev was reluctant to convert a king and declined to do so. (According to one of the biographers Ramcharan Thakur) A painful boil; a visha phohara – had appeared in some part of his body and this led to the passing away of the Saint.Thus, in 1568, after leading a most eventful life dedicated to enlightening humanity; the Mahapurusha breathed his last – after four months of his last stay at Bheladonga– at the remarkable age of 120 years.

Literary works in the Koch kingdom[edit]

  1. Bhagavata tales, not from Book X
    • Bali-chalana (Book VIII)
    • Anadi-patana (Book III, Vamana-purana)
  2. Bhagavata tales from Books X, XI, XIII
    • Kirtan-ghosa (Jarasandha yudha, Kalayavana badha, Mucukunda-stuti, Syamanta-haran, Naradar-krishna-darsan, Vipra-putra-anayana, Daivakir-putra-anayana, Veda-stuti, Lilamala, Rukminir-prem-kalah, Bhrigu-pariksha, srikrishnar-vaikuntha-prayana, Chaturvimsati-avatar-varnana, Tatparya)
  3. Gunamala
  4. Renderings of Bhagavata Purana
    • Bhagavata X (Adi)
    • Bhagavata XI (with material from Books I and III)
    • Bhagavata XII
    • Bhagavata I
    • Bhagavata II
    • Bhagavata IX (lost)
    • Kurukshetra (Book X, Uttarardha)
    • Nimi-nava-siddha-samvada
  5. From Ramayana
  6. Lyrics
  7. Doctrinal treatise
  8. Drama (Ankia Naat)
    • Kali-daman
    • Keli-gopal
    • Rukmini-haran
    • Parijat-haran
    • Ram-vijay
  9. Visual Art

Mahapurusha Srimanta Sankardeva (1449-1568) (Assamese: মহাপুৰুষ শ্ৰীমন্ত শঙ্কৰদেব Môhapurux Srimôntô Xônkôrdev), saint-scholar, playwright, social-religious reformer, is a colossal figure in the cultural and religious history of Assam, India. He is credited with providing a thread of unity to Assam straddling two major kingdoms (Ahom and Koch kingdoms), building on past literary activities to provide the bedrock of Assamese culture, and creating a religion that gave shape to a set of new values and social synthesis. The religion he started, Mahapuruxiya Dharma, was part of the Bhakti movement then raging in India, and he inspired bhakti in Assam just as Ramananda, Kabir, Basava and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu inspired it elsewhere. His literary and artistic contributions are living traditions in Assam today. The religion he preached is practiced by a large population, and Sattras (monasteries) that he and his followers established continue to flourish and sustain his legacy.

 In reverence to his personality, teachings and oeuvre, he is a Mahapurusha, or “Great Man”.

• Biography

Srimanta Sankardev’s genealogy and relatives that played a role in his life and work’s narrative. Sankardev himself drew his lineage from his great-grandfather Rajadhara. His grandmother was instrumental in raising him during his orphanhood and beyond. The brothers of his grandfather, Jayanta and Madhava dispensed the duties of the shiromani bhuyan during Sankardev’s 12-year long first pilgrimage. A descendant of Jayanta, Kamalapriya, and her husband Chilarai were responsible for the royal Koch support during the later part of his life. Puroshottam Thakur and Chaturbhuj Thakur, his grandsons, became important leaders in the religion Sankardev established.

 Srimanta Sankaradeva was born into the Shiromani (chief) Baro-Bhuyans family, near Bordowa in Nagaon in a village called Ali-pukhuri in c1449. The Baro-Bhuyans were independent landlords in Assam, and belonged to the kayastha Hindu caste. His family-members, including parents Kusumvara and Satyasandhya Devi, were saktas. The Saint lost both his father and his mother at a very tender age and was raised by his grandmother Khersuti. He began attending the tol or chatrasaal (school) of the renowned scholar Mahendra Kandali at the age of 12 and soon wrote his first verses:

 karatala kamala kamaladala nayana |

bhavadava dahana gahana vana sayana ||

napara napara para satarata gamaya |

sabhaya mabhaya bhaya mamahara satataya ||

kharatara varasara hatadasa vadana |

khagachara nagadhara fanadhara sayana ||

 jagadagha mapahara bhavabhaya tarana |

parapada layakara kamalaja nayana || ..

 The complete poem was written before he was taught the vowels except, of course, the first one, and is often cited as an example of the early flowering of his poetic genius.

He was physically very able, and according to legend, he could swim across the Brahmaputra while it was in spate.

 He left the tol in his late teens (c1469) to attend to his responsibilities as the Shiromani Bhuyan. He moved from Alipukhuri to Bordowa, and wrote his first work, Harishchandra upakhyan. Sankardeva produced a dance-drama called Cihna yatra, for which he painted the Sapta vaikuntha (seven heavens), guided the making of musical instruments and played the instruments himself.

 At Bordowa, he constructed a dharmagrha or a Hari-grha (house of the Lord) in which he installed an image of Vishnu that was found during the construction of the grha. But it was not meant for worshipping; it was just a “showpiece of art work”. In fact, he was absolutely against any kind of worshipping of Idols or Images of gods. He married his first wife Suryavati when he was in his early 20s. His wife died soon after his daughter Manu was born.

Alipukhuri and Borduwa It is possible the death of his wife increased his spiritual inclination as his mind began to focus, more than ever before, on the transcendental. When his daughter turned nine, he married her off to Hari, handed over the Shiromaniship to his grand uncles and left for a pilgrimage (a religious tour rather) (c1482). At this point of time, he was 32. The pilgrimage took him to Puri, Mathura, Dwaraka, Vrindavan, Gaya, Rameswaram, Ayodhya, Sitakunda and almost all the other major seats of the Vaishnavite religion in India. At Badrikashrama, he composed his first bargeet—mana meri ram charanahi lagu—in Brajavali. He returned home to Ali-pukhuri after 12 years (his family had moved back from Bordowa in his absence). During his pilgrimage, he witnessed the Bhakti movement that was in full bloom in India at that time.

After his return, he refused to take back the Shiromaniship. On his grandmother’s insistence, he married Kalindi at the age of 44. Finally, he moved back to Bordowa and constructed his first naamghar (prayer hall), and began preaching. He wrote Bhakti pradipa and Rukmini harana. Soon after, he received a copy of the Bhagavata Purana from Jagadisa Misra of Tirhut which had in it commentaries from Sridhara Swami of Puri, an Advaita scholar, and began rendering it into Assamese. He also began composing the Kirtana ghosha. The 13 years at Ali-pukhuri was the period during which he reflected deeply on Vaishnavism and on the form that would best suit the spiritual and ethical needs of the people.

Dhuwahat

From Ali-pukhuri he moved again to Gajalasuti and then back to Bordowa. In the mean time the Bhuyans were getting weak politically and Bordowa was attacked by the neighboring tribes. Sankaradeva had to move again from place to place. At Gangmau he stayed for five years where his son Ramananda was born. While at Gangmau, the Koch king Viswa Singha attacked the Ahoms. The Bhuyans fought for the Ahoms and the Koch king was defeated. Due to the unsettled situation at Gangmau Sankaradeva next moved to Dhuwahat, present day Majuli, now an island on the Brahmaputra. At Dhuwahat, he met his spiritual successor Madhavadeva. Madhavdeva, a sakta, got into a religious altercation with his brother-in-law Ramadasa who had recently converted to Vaishnavism. Ramadasa took him to Sankaradeva, who, after a long debate, could finally convince him of the power and the efficacy of Naam Dharma. At Dhuwahat he initiated many others into his religion and continued composing the Kirtana ghoxa. He tried to appease the brahmans by gentle persuasion and debate, but they felt threatened by the emergence of a new religion propagated by a non-brahmin. Some brahmans submitted a complaint with the Ahom king Suhungmung, who summoned Sankaradeva and Madhavadeva to court. They gave adequate replies to the royal queries and were let off.

Though the relationship with the Ahom royalty began cordially, it soon deteriorated. Once on the charge of dereliction of duty, Hari, Sankaradeva’s son-in-law, and Madhavadeva were arrested and sent to the capital Garhgaon, where Hari was executed. Madhavadeva’s life was spared but he was imprisoned for a year. This incident pained Sankaradeva much and he, along with his family and Madhavadeva, journeyed toward the Koch kingdom.

At Dhuwahat, he wrote the drama Patniprasada.

Patbausi

At Sunpora he initiated Bhavananda, a rich trader who had extensive business interest in the Garo and Bhutan hills besides Kamarupa. The trader, Narayana Das, settled at Janiya near Barpeta and took to agriculture. A man of the world otherwise, he soon flourished and became a provider to Sankaradeva and his devotees. He came to be known popularly as Thakur Ata. After a great deal of moving, Sankaradeva settled at Patbausi near Barpeta and constructed a Kirtanghar (house of prayer). Some of the people he initiated here are Chakrapani Dwija and Sarvabhauma Bhattacharya, brahmins; Ketai Khan, a kayastha; Govinda, a Garo; Jayarama, a Bhutia; Murari, a Koch and Chandsai a Muslim. He also befriended Ananta kandali, a profound scholar of Sanskrit, who translated parts of the Bhagavata Purana. Damodardeva, another brahmin, was initiated by Sankaradeva and he later became the founder of the Brahma Sanghati sect of Sankaradeva’s religion.

Among his literary works, he completed his rendering of the Bhagavata Purana and wrote other independent works. He continued composing the Kirtana Ghosha, further translated the first book of the Ramayana (uttarakanda) and instructed Madhavadeva to translate the last book (adikanda), portions that were left undone by the 14th century poet Madhav Kandali. He wrote four dramas: Rukmini harana, Parijata harana, Keligopala and kalidamana. Another drama written at Patbausi, kamsa vadha, is lost. At Patbausi, he had lent his bargeets numbering aroung 240 to Kamala Gayan. But unfortunately, his house was gutted and most of the bargeets were lost. Since that incident Sankaradeva stopped composing bargeets. Of the 240, 34 remain today.

Sankaradeva once again left for a pilgrimage with a large party of 117 disciples that included Madhavadeva, Ramarama, Thakur Ata and others. Madhavadeva, on the request of Sankaradeva’s wife Kalindi urged him to return from Puri and not proceed to Vrindavana. He returned to Patbausi within six months.

 Kochbehar

 On hearing complaints that Sankaradeva was corrupting the minds of the people by spreading a new religion, Naranarayana the Koch king, ordered Sankaradeva’s arrest. Sankaradeva managed to go into hiding, but Narayan Das Thakur Ata and Gokulchand were captured. They were taken to Kochbehar and subjected to inhuman torture, but they did not divulge the location where their Guru was staying, and the royals soon gave up.

 In the meantime Chilarai, the general of the Koch army and brother of Naranarayana, who had been influenced by the religion and had married Kamalapriya, the daughter of Sankaradeva’s cousin Ramaraya, arranged for Sankaradeva’s audience with Naranarayana. As he moved up the steps to the throne, Sankardev sang his Sanskrit totaka hymn (composed extempore) to God,

madhu daanava daarana deva varam |

vara vaarija locana cakra dharam ||

 dharani dhara dhaarana dheya param |

paramaartha vidyaashubha naasha karam ||

kara churnita chedipa bhuri bhagam |

 bhaga bhushana korchhita paada yugam ||

yuga naayaka naagara vesha ruchim |

ruchiraangshupidhaana sharira suchim || ..

 and as he sat down, he sang a borgeet, narayana kahe bhakati karu tera. Naranarayana was overwhelmed by the Saint’s personality. The king then asked Sankaradeva’s opponents to prove their complaint. After Sankaradeva defeated them in the debate, Naranarayana declared him free from all allegations. Sankaradeva began attending Naranarayana’s court at the king’s request. When he met Naranarayana, he was well over a hundred years old and had just three more years to live.

 After the debate, Sankaradeva shuttled between Kochbehar and Patbausi. On the request of Nara Narayan and Chilarai he supervised the creations of the 60mx30m woven Vrindavani vastra, that depicted the playful activities of Krishna in Vrindavana. This was presented to the Koch king.

 End

 He made arrangements with Madhavadeva and Thakur Ata and gave them various instructions at Patbausi and left the place for the last time. He set up his home at Bheladonga in Kochbehar. During his stay at Kochbehar, Naranarayana expressed his wish to be initiated. Sankaradeva was reluctant to convert a king and declined to do so. According to one of the biographers (Ramcharan Thakur), a painful boil—a visha phohara – had appeared in some part of his body and this led to the passing away of the Saint. According to other accounts (Guru Charit Katha et al.), Naranarayan’s adamance that he be initiated into the new religion led the saint to surrender his life to the Lord by way of meditative communion. Thus, in 1568, after leading a most eventful life dedicated to enlightening humanity; the Mahapurusha died – within six months of his stay at Bheladonga – at the remarkable age of 120 years.

Eka Sarana

 Mahapuruxiya dharma

 Sankaradeva used the form of Krishna to preach devotion to a single God (eka sarana), who can be worshiped solely by uttering His various names (naam). In contrast to other bhakti forms, eka sarana follows the dasya attitude (a slave to God). Moreover, unlike the ‘Gaudiya Vaishnavism’ of Bengal, Radha is not worshiped along with Krishna. In uttering the name of God, Hari, Rama, Narayana and Krishna are most often used.

Sankaradeva himself and the religion in general are particularly antagonistic to saktism which was strongly prevalent in Assam at the time. This probably explains the non-use of Radha as an icon. His famous debate with Madhavadeva, who was a staunch sakta (devotee of Shakti) earlier, and Madhavadeva’s subsequent conversion to Vaishnavism, is often cited as the single most epoch-making event in the history of the neo-Vaishnavite movement in Assam. Madhavadeva, an equally multi-talented person, became his most celebrated disciple.

A non-brahmin, Srimanta Sankaradeva started a system of initiation (saran lowa) into his religion. He caused a huge Social revolution by fighting against anti-social elements like casteism prevailing at that time. He initiated people of all castes and religions, including Muslims. After initiation, the devotee is expected to adhere to the religious tenets of eka sarana. Failure to adhere to these tenets led to ex-communication in certain cases.

Though he himself married twice, had children and led the life of a householder, his disciple Madhavadeva did not.

 Some of his followers today follow celibate monkhood (kevaliya bhakat) in the Vaishnavite monasteries – the sattras.

 The people who practice his religion are called variously as Mahapurushia, Sarania or Sankari.

Works

Literary

 Sankaradeva produced a large body of work. Though there were others before him who wrote in the language of the common man – Madhav Kandali who translated the Ramayana into Assamese in the 14th century – his was the first ramayana to be written in a modern Indian language – Harivara Vipra and Hema Saraswati, it was Sankaradeva who opened the floodgates and inspired others like Madhavadeva to carry on where he left off.

His language is lucid, his verses lilting, and he infused bhakti into everything he wrote. His magnum opus is his Kirtana-ghosha, a work so popular that even today it is found in nearly every household in Assam. It contains narrative verses glorifying Krishna meant for community singing. It is a bhakti kayva par excellence, written in a lively and simple language, it has “stories and songs for amusement [for children], it delights the young with true poetic beauty and elderly people find here religious instruction and wisdom”.

For most of his works, he used the Assamese language of the period so the lay person could read and understand them. But for dramatic effect in his songs and dramas he used Brajavali, an artificial mixture of Braj language and Assamese.

 Other literary works include the rendering of eight books of the Bhagavata Purana including the Adi Dasama (Book X), Harishchandra-upakhyana (his first work), Bhakti-pradip, the Nimi-navasiddha-samvada (conversation between King Nimi and the nine Siddhas), Bhakti-ratnakara (Sanskrit verses, mostly from the Bhagavata, compiled into a book), Anadi-patana (having as its theme the creation of the universe and allied cosmological matters), Gunamala and many plays like Rukmini haran, Patni prasad, Keli gopal, Kurukshetra yatra and Srirama vijaya. There was thus an flowering of great Bhakti literature during his long life of 120 years.

Poetic works (kavya)

• Kirtana-ghosha

 • Harischandra-upakhyana

 • Rukmini-harana

• Ajamilopakhyana

• Bali-chalana

• Kurukshetra-yatra

• Gopi-uddhava-samvada

 • Amrta-manthana

• Krishna-prayana-pandava-niryana

 • Kamajaya

Bhakti Theory

• Bhakati-pradipa

 • Anadi-patana

 • Nimi-navasiddha-samvada

• Bhakti Ratnakara (in Sanskrit)

• Gunamala 

 Transliteration

• Bhagavat (Book VI, VIII, I, II, VII, X, XI, XII; IX not available)

• Ramayana (uttarakanda, supplemental to Madhav Kandali’s Katha Ramayana) His translation of the Bhagavata is actually a transcreation, because he translates not just the words but the idiom and the physiognomy too. He has adapted the original text to the local land and people and most importantly for the purpose of bhakti. Portions of the original were left out or elaborated where appropriate. For example, he suppressed the portions that revile the lowers castes of sudra and kaivartas, and extols them elsewhere.

Drama (Ankia Nat)

• Cihna Yatra (lost)

• Patni-prasada

 • Kalia-damana

• Keli-gopala

 • Rukmini-harana

 • Parijata-harana

 • Srirama-vijaya

Sankaradeva was the fountainhead of the Ankiya naat, a form of one-act play. In fact, his Cihna Yatra – staged by him when he was only 19 – is regarded as one of the first open-air theatrical performances in the world. Cihna yatra was probably a dance drama and no text of that show is available today. Innovations like the presence of a Sutradhara (narrator) on the stage, use of masks etc., were used later in the plays of Bertolt Brecht and other eminent playwrights.

These cultural traditions still form an integral part of the heritage of the Assamese people.

Songs

 • Borgeet (composed 240, but only 34 exist now)

• Bhatima

o Deva bhatima – panegyrics to God

 o Naat bhatima – for use in dramas

 o Raja bhatima – panegyrics to kings (to king Nara Narayan)

 The Borgeets (literally: great songs) are devotional songs, set to music and sung in various raga styles. These styles are slightly different from either the Hindustani or the Carnatic styles. The songs themselves are written in the ‘Brajavali’ language.

Dance

Sattriya dance, that Sankaradeva first conceived and developed and which was later preserved for centuries by the sattras, is now among the classical dance forms of India.

Visual Art

• Sapta vaikuntha – part of the Cihna yatra production, does not exist today.

• Vrindavani vastra – parts of this work are preserved in London.

The famous Vrindavani Vastra—the cloth of Vrindavan—a 120 x 60 cubits tapestry depicted the lilas of Lord Krishna at Vrindavan through richly woven and embroidered designs on silk.[2] A specimen, believed to be a part of this work, is at the Association pour l’Etude et la Documentation des Textiles d’Asie collection at Paris (inv. no. 3222). The vastra, commissioned by Chilarai, was woven by 12 master weavers in Barpeta under the supervision of Sankaradeva probably between 1565 and 1568. It was housed in the Madhupur sattra but it disappeared at some point. It is believed this cloth made its way to Tibet and from there to its present place.

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